Pourquoi les jeunes Français sont-ils des fans de Manga?

La France est le deuxième pays consommateur de mangas dans le monde. Comment peut-on expliquer ce phénomène qui a débuté dans les années 1980, et qui ne faiblit pas chez les générations Y et Z ?


Une culture qui a été perpétuée par les générations Y et Z

La passion qui lie les Français à la culture nippone remonte aux années 1980. A cette époque, « Goldorak » et les premiers dessins animés japonais apparaissent sur les écrans du club Dorothée. Le manga papier voit le jour au début des années 1990. A cette époque, il n’existait pas de bandes-dessinées pour adolescents, hormis les comics américains.

La génération X, nourrie par cette culture, s’est empressée de la diffuser et de la populariser à son tour. Par la suite, les générations Y et Z se sont emparés de cette culture manga, dont ils se nourrissent maintenant par le streaming et les livres.

 » Une fois que cette génération a grandi, elle a investi les maisons d’éditions, les postes à responsabilité dans la culture, et a conféré une crédibilité au genre qui était perçu comme une  » japonaiserie » . Je me rappelle que, quand j’avais 15 ans, il y avait un minuscule rayon dédié aux mangas à la FNAC, alors que maintennt il est immense », relate Nicolas Oliverti,  enseignant-chercheur à l’IDRAC, et auteur d’une thèse comparative sur la cyberdépendance entre le Japon et la France. »

  Le manga à l’heure actuelle

Aujourd’hui, avec 12,4 millions d’exemplaires écoulés en 2015, le marché du manga se porte très bien en France. Cette dernière conserve son titre de 2ème consommatrice mondiale de mangas après le Japon. Les lecteurs de manga, et ceux qui se rendent à la Japan expo en Cosplay ont généralement entre 15 et 30 ans, et sont aussi bien des hommes que des femmes.

Si le lectorat demeure si jeune, c’est parce qu’il  »  parle aux adolescents de ce qui les intéresse : premiers rendez-vous amoureux, sexe, etc. C’est une éducation sentimentale sur un mode décontracté et comique », explique Jean-Marie Bouissou, auteure du livre  » Manga : histoire et univers de la bande dessinée japonaise ».

De plus, d’après cette spécialiste du Japon, l’engouement de cette génération est due à la parution très régulière des volumes qui paraissent  » tous les deux ou trois mois, contre une bande dessinée par an en moyenne en France. » 

Il y a fort a parier que ce modèle ait séduit les générations Y et Z, qui baignent dans la culture de  » l’instantanéité ».

La réappripriation culturelle

Un phénomène nouveau est arrivé avec les générations Y et Z : une forme de réappropriation culturelle qu’il n’y avait pas avant. A présent, certains jeunes connaissent la langue et les coutume japonaise. Certains d’entres eux s’auto qualifient d’Otaku, qui signifie en japonais  » celui qui reste à la maison ». Un terme désignant une personne qui consacre une grande partie de son temps à une activité d’intérieur, comme les bandes dessinées, les mangas, les dessins animés ou les films,  ou encore les jeux vidéo. Pourtant, les Otakus français et japonais n’ont rien à voir :

« Le terme d’otaku au Japon est plutôt péjoratif, cela pourrait correspondre à ce que l’on appelle un « no Life ». C’est un individu en rupture avec la société, qui met sa vie entre parenthèse pour sa passion. Ceux qui se réclament« otaku » en France sont juste  fans de la culture japonaise. Ils se sont appropriés ce qualificatif mais ne présentent pas forcément des symptômes de cyberdépendance. Ce sont par exemple des gens qui s’empressent de fournir les sous-titres des dessins animés japonais dès le lendemain de leur parution, ou partent vivre au Japon », explique Nicolas Olivrti. 

Le spécialiste s’expliquent mal cette appropriation. En effet,  l’écart culturel qui sépare ces deux pays est si grand que l’appropriation culturelle semble insolite.  Fabien, un  » Otaku » qui s’exprime sur le forum 18-25 ans, pense que c’est justement cet exotisme qui a su séduire les jeunes français:

 »  Ce que j’ai aimé dans le manga, c’est que le Japon est aux antipodes de la France. C’est un peuple qui a su être dans la modernité tout en conservant ses traditions, contrairement à la France. Ils aiment la famille, leur cuisine. C’est aussi un pays qui prône la sécurité et la discipline: quand je m’y suis rendu, les rues étaient propres et les gens polies. Le retour en France à été difficile ». 


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