Facebook active une « boucle de récompense » dans notre cerveau

Les créateurs de Facebook ont conçu l’application pour que les « like » génèrent un sentiment de récompense dans le cerveau. Décryptage d’une addiction liée à la dopamine. 


Dans une interview donnée à Axios en 2017, Sean Parker, ex -créateur de Facebook malheureux en affaire, expliquait que la création de l’application était basée sur une « boucle de rétroaction de validation sociale ». En d’autres termes, Facebook est conçu de manière à encourager les interactions par le biais du sentiment de récompense. Selon les dires de Sean Parker, Facebook veut « vous envoyer une petite dose de dopamine de temps à autre parce que quelqu’un aura aimé ou commenté une de vos photos ou un de vos postes ou autre. Et cela va vous inciter à ajouter davantage de contenus qui vont vous rapporter… plus de « likes » et de commentaires. ». Comment fonctionne ces mécanismes complexes du cerveau exploités par Facebook ? Explications en détail.

Le noyau accumbens: Responsable de l’addiction 

http://lecerveau.mcgill.ca

Selon une étude de l’Université de Berlin le fait d’avoir des échanges et des « like » sur  Facebook active l’aire temporo-pariétal  du cerveau : cette dernière est liée à deux zones importantes:

1- Le noyau accumbens:

Il génère un sentiment de récompense intervenant pour d’autres types d’addiction (au sexe, à la nourriture, au jeu…). Il sert aussi à faire une comparaison sociale entre nous et autrui.

2- L’amygdale:

Zone du cerveau impliquée dans l’évaluation de la valence émotionnelle des stimuli sensoriels. Producteur d’ocytocine (hormone du bonheur) et  de dopamine (hormone de la motivation).

Le processus se fait ainsi : l’individu partage une photo sur Facebook. Une dose de dopamine, hormone de la motivation, est envoyée vers son noyau accumbens. Le sentiment de récompense est recherché par cette zone du cerveau, qui reçoit un stimuli positif à chaque « liked » ou commentaire. Le sentiment de récompense est accompli, et la boucle bouclée : l’utilisateur produit de l’ocytocine, aussi appelée « hormone du bonheur ». L’utilisateur cherchera de nouveau ce sentiment de récompense, encouragé par la plénitude inconsciente que lui a procuré Facebook.

 Sean Parker déclarait dans son interview à Axios vouloir à l’époque « exploiter une vulnérabilité de la psychologie humaine » pour accroître le nombre d’utilisateurs de Facebook. C’est chose faite. 

Quelles conséquences à long terme sur le cerveau ?

http://www.frcneurodon.org

L’étude allemande a aussi démontré que le noyau accumbens nécessite des stimulations toujours plus importantes. Une fois activé par Facebook, la drogue ou l’alcool, il demande de nouvelles « doses » rapidement.  C’est ainsi que l’addiction se crée. Ainsi, même les utilisateurs modérés de Facebook pourront vite développer un réflexe mécanique. Ils iront sur leur fil d’actualité de plus en plus fréquemment, voir tous les matins, pour y chercher la satisfaction ressentie la veille. Ofir Turel, qui a étudié le cerveau d’étudiants adeptes de Facebook, a constaté les similitudes avec d’autres formes d’addictions. Chez un « accro » de Facebook, comme pour un héroïnomane, le noyau accubmbens est plus développé que chez un individu normal. Cela engendre un surcoût d’activité dans les zones motivationnelles du cerveau: l’individu est poussé par une force irrésistible qui le pousse à consommer de nouveau «  sa drogue ».

Le noyau accumbens est aussi responsable de la comparaison sociale chez l’individu. Car cette zone du cerveau a l’esprit de compétition: elle réagit aux résultats qui nous semblent supérieurs à ceux d’autrui ( comme le classement lors d’un concours. ) Ainsi, les adeptes de Facebook ont un module de comparaison social bien plus développé que la moyenne. Cela les pousse à s’auto-promouvoir par le biais de leurs postes et de leurs photos, afin d’acquérir la meilleure image virtuelle possible. Il s’agit de surpasser ses rivaux fictifs. Quitte à devenir un rat de laboratoire accros aux stimuli virtuels, et dépendant des «  clics » d’autrui.

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