Cyberdépendance aux jeux vidéo : sommes nous alarmistes ?

Entretien avec Nicolas Oliveri, docteur en Sciences de l’Information et de la Communication. Auteur de livre «  Les jeux vidéo : quand jouer c’est communiquer », ses travaux portent sur la cyberdépendance et les jeux vidéo.


 se situe la frontière entre la passion pour les jeux vidéo et la cyberdépendance ?

La question sur laquelle les médias et la psychologie n’ont pas pu trancher, est celle du temps. Il n’existe pas, à ce jour, un nombre d’heures déterminé, où l’individu peut-être qualifié de cyber-dépendant. Seuls les usages peuvent confirmer une possible addiction. Si le jeu vidéo a des conséquences néfastes sur l’emploi, la vie sociale et qu’il devient une priorité absolue, il y a des risques de cyberdépendance. J’ai rencontré des enfants qui jouaient énormément aux jeux vidéos et qui conservaient un bulletin de notes extrêmement convenable, alors qu’il étaient des gros joueurs sur l’ensemble d’une semaine. Tandis que d’autres pouvaient dépenser tout leur salaire du mois au poker en ligne en une seule soirée. Cette deuxième catégorie pourrait être qualifiée de cyber-dépendante, alors que son rapport temporel au jeu n’est pas très important. Il faut donc davantage se baser sur les conséquences que cela engendre, au niveau des usages et des pratiques, que sur la dimension temporelle.

Certains adolescent jouent beaucoup aux jeux vidéos, et vers 20 ans cela se calme. Comment expliquer cela ?

C’est forcément corrélé par des tranches d’âge. C’est aussi le temps de la sociabilité par le jeu vidéo. On parle du jeu avec des copains, on échange des sites, des stratégies: cela créé du lien, ce n’est pas néfaste. Serge Tisseron, un spécialiste de la cyberdépendance, situe l’arrêt du jeu vidéo vers les 17-18 ans. L’adolescent trouve d’autres centres de préoccupation : sortir, aller à la rencontre du sexe opposé. Il y a un décrochage naturel et en douceur du jeu vidéo.

Est-ce que la pratique du jeu vidéo est une échappatoire au réel ?

Cela dépend vraiment des individus. Si le réel est devenu oppressant et qu’il y a une tentative de fuite ( les gens victimes de brimades par exemple), la personne va investir le jeu parce qu’elle aura l’impression d’être quelqu’un. Il y aura une gratification dans le numérique qu’elle ne trouve pas ailleurs. Ce n’est pas le jeu vidéo qui va créer le mal-être : l’individu cyber-dépendant est déjà en souffrance, et tente de se calmer par le biais d’une console, comme il pourrait le faire avec la boisson ou la drogue.

Considérez-vous que les médias sont alarmistes vis-à vis des jeux vidéos ?

Les médias ont eu tendance à prendre un épiphénomène pour en faire une généralité. On voit des documentaires avec des enfants complètement obnubilés par le jeu vidéo. Or se serait la même chose avec une autre activité stimulante. Le message alarmiste remplit aussi le cabinet de certains psychologues. De mon point de vue, la cyberdépendance concerne une infime minorité de joueurs. Les journalistes comme les chercheurs ont toujours envie d’identifier des sujets porteurs pour en tirer une généralité. La réalité est beaucoup plus complexe, et nuancée en fonction des individus.

Il y a de plus en plus de jeux vidéos éducatifs développés pour les jeunes enfants. Comment vous positionnez-vous par rapport à cela ?

Il ne se passe pas une année sans qu’une étude en contredise une autre sur ce sujet. Que cela soit en France ou aux Etats-Unis. Je ne m’oppose pas à ce que l’on mette des enfants devant les jeux vidéos, à condition que cela soit encadré en terme de contenu, avec un  suivi parental. Beaucoup d’études ont aussi montré que les jeux vidéos sont un formidable outil pour développer l’imaginaire, les réflexes. Ma position est donc modérée : je ne suis pas contre les jeux éducatifs, mais il ne peuvent pas non plus remplacer la présence parentale.

Faut-il d’abord responsabiliser les parents ?

Le principal souci qui oppose parents et enfants, c’est le fossé générationnel qui  les sépare, et qui tend à disparaître. Mais il y a souvent une absence de dialogue parental. En conférence, un homme me disais que son fils ne voulait plus lui parler à cause des jeux vidéos. J’ai demandé à cette personne sur quelle console et à quels jeux son fils jouait, et ce dernier était incapable de me répondre. Je voulais lui montrer qu’il avait une responsabilité dans tout cela : il n’avait jamais cherché à savoir pourquoi son gamin se passionnait pour les jeux. Je lui ai conseillé de faire l’effort de s’y intéresser, de faire une partie avec lui pour comprendre sa passion. C’est ainsi que leur relation pourra s’assainir : pas en restant chacun dans son coin. Le fossé générationnel pourra se gommer grâce à la pratique collective de ses jeux vidéos-ludiques.


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